Massage

History

Massage is the manipulation of superficial and deeper layers of muscle and connective tissue to enhance the function and promote relaxation and well-being.[1][2] The word comes from the French massage "friction of kneading", or from Arabic massa meaning "to touch, feel or handle" or from Latin massa meaning "mass, dough".[3][4] In distinction the ancient Greek word for massage was anatripsis,[5] and the Latin was frictio.

Massage involves acting on and manipulating the body with pressure – structured, unstructured, stationary, or moving – tension, motion, or vibration, done manually or with mechanical aids. Target tissues may include muscles, tendons, ligaments, skin, joints, or other connective tissue, as well as lymphatic vessels, or organs of the gastrointestinal system. Massage can be applied with the hands, fingers, elbows, knees, forearm, and feet. There are over eighty different recognized massage modalities.[6] The most cited reasons for introducing massage as therapy have been client demand and perceived clinical effectiveness.[7]

In professional settings massage involves the client being treated while lying on a massage table, sitting in a massage chair, or lying on a mat on the floor. The massage subject may be fully or partly unclothed. Parts of the body may be covered with towels or sheets.

 

Ancient and medieval times

Writings on massage have been found in many ancient civilizations including Rome, Greece, India, Japan, China, Egypt and Mesopotamia. A biblical reference from c.493 BC documents daily massage with olive oil and myrrh as a part of the beauty regimen of the wives of Xerxes (Esther, 2:9-12).[6] Hippocrates wrote in 460 BC that "The physician must be experienced in many things, but assuredly in rubbing".[8]

The Ancient Chinese book called Huangdi Neijing by the Yellow Emperor recommended "massage of skin and flesh".[9] The technique of massage abortion, involving the application of pressure to the pregnant abdomen, has been practiced in Southeast Asia for centuries. One of the bas reliefs decorating the temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, dated circa 1150, depicts a demon performing such an abortion upon a woman who has been sent to the underworld. This is believed to be the oldest known visual representation of abortion.[10]

In Romania some illnesses were treated by a massage in which the client was trodden on by a tame bear.[11]

 

Modern times

Marathon runners receiving massages at the 2004 ING Taipei International Marathon
China: In modern times, massage in China has developed by absorbing western ideas into the traditional framework. It is widely practiced and taught in hospital and medical schools and is an essential part of primary healthcare.[12]

United States: Massage started to become popular in the United States in the middle part of the 19th century[6] and was introduced by two New York physicians based on Per Henrik Ling's techniques developed in Sweden.[8]

During the 1930s and 1940s massage's influence decreased as a result of medical advancements of the time, while in the 1970s massage's influence grew once again with a notable rise among athletes.[6] Massage was used up until the 1960s and 1970s by nurses to help ease patients' pain and help them sleep.[13]

Because it is illegal to advertise or offer sexual services in much of the United States, such services are sometimes advertised as "massage," hence the rise of the term "massage therapy" in an attempt to provide a distinction between sexual and non-sexual services.

United Kingdom: Massage is popular in the United Kingdom today and gaining in popularity. There are many private practitioners working from their own premises as well as those who operate from commercial venues.

Massage in sports, business and organizations: The 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta was the first time that massage was offered as a core medical service.[9] Massage has been employed by businesses and organizations such as the U.S. Department of Justice, Boeing and Reebok.[14] Notable athletes such as Michael Jordan and Lebron James have personal massage therapists that at times even travel with them.

 

Equipment

Massage Tables
Specialized massage tables and chairs are used to position clients during massages. A typical commercial massage table has an easily cleaned, heavily padded surface, and a horseshoe-shaped head support that allows the client to breathe easily while lying face down and can be stationary or portable. An orthopedic pillow or bolster can be used to correct body positioning.

Ergonomic chairs serve a similar function as a massage table. Chairs may be either stationary or portable models. Massage chairs are easier for the practitioner to transport than massage tables, and clients do not need to disrobe to receive a chair massage. Due to these two factors, chair massage is often performed in settings such as corporate offices, outdoor festivals, shopping malls, and other public locations.

Vichy shower
A Vichy shower is a form of hydrotherapy which uses a series of shower nozzles which spray large quantities of water over the client while he or she lies in a shallow wet bed, similar to a massage table, but with drainage for the water. The nozzles may usually be adjusted for height, direction, and temperature.

Dry-water massage bed
A dry-water massage bed uses jets of water to perform the massage of the client's muscles. These beds differ from a Vichy shower in that the client usually stays dry. Two common types are one in which the client lies on a waterbed-like mattress which contains warm water and jets of water and air bubbles[15] and one in which the client lies on a foam pad and is covered by a plastic sheet and is then sprayed by jets of warm water, similar to a Vichy shower.[16] The second type is sometimes seen available for use in malls and shopping centers for a small fee.

Oil
Many different types of oils can be used including fractionated coconut oil, grape seed oil, olive oil, almond oil, macadamia oil, sesame oil, pecan oil, and mustard oil. Aromatherapy oils such as neroli oil and pine oil can also be mixed with carrier oils. Salts are also used in association with oils to remove dry skin.

Body rock
A body rock is a serpentine-shaped tool, usually carved out of stone. It's used to amplify the therapist's strength and focus pressure on certain areas. It can be used directly on the skin with a lubricant such as oil or corn starch[17] or directly over clothing.

 

Massage methods

Practitioners of massage include massage therapists, athletic trainers and physical therapists. Massage practitioners work in a variety of medical and recreational settings and may travel to private residences or businesses.[6] Contraindications to massage include deep vein thrombosis, bleeding disorders or taking blood thinners such as Warfarin, damaged blood vessels, weakened bones from cancer, osteoporosis, or fractures, bruising, and fever.[6]

Acupressure
Main article: Acupressure
Acupressure (a portmanteau of "acupuncture" and "pressure") is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) technique derived from acupuncture. With acupressure physical pressure is applied to acupuncture points by the hand, elbow, or with various devices.

Indian Traction Massage in marma therapy given in Sreepathy cvn kalari for intervertebral disc prolapse

Anma
Anma is a traditional Japanese massage involving kneading and deep tissue work.

Ayurvedic massage
Ayurveda is a natural health care system originating in India that incorporates massage, yoga, meditation and herbal remedies. Ayurvedic massage, also known as Abhyanga is usually performed by one or two therapists using a heated blend of herbal oils based on the ayurvedic system of humors.

Balinese massage
Balinese massage techniques are gentle and aim to make the patient feel relaxed and calm throughout. The techniques include skin folding, kneading, stroking,and other techniques. The massage therapist applies aromatheraphy oil throughout the massage. A patient's blood, oxygen and energy flow is said to increase as a result of the treatment.[citation needed] Balinese hot stones are an option.

Barefoot deep tissue
Barefoot deep tissue, also known as barefoot compressive deep tissue, or barefoot sports massage, is a blend of Eastern barefoot techniques, such as barefoot Shiatsu massage, coupled with a Western manual medicine, encompassing deep tissue, myofascial release, trigger point therapy, transverse friction, compression, tension, shear, PNF, stretching, as well as parasympathetic response, on clothed clients using no oil. Dara Torres, 41-year old Olympian, received barefoot compression massage on a daily basis in her training program.[18]

This modality typically uses the heel, sesamoid, arch and/or whole plantar surface of foot, and offers large compression, tension and shear forces with less pressure than elbow or thumb, and is ideal for large muscles, such as in thigh, or for long-duration upper trapezius compressions.[19] The unclothed cousins of this modality are Keralite, Yumeiho, Barefoot Lomi Lomi, Fijian Barefoot, Chavutti Thirummal.

Ashiatsu Oriental Bar Therapy, which is a form of barefoot effleurage, combines western science and contemporary American ingenuity, for therapists who specialize in deep tissue work using Swedish techniques performed by the massage therapists feet.

Bowen therapy
Main article: Bowen Technique
Bowen technique involves a rolling movement over fascia, muscles, ligaments, tendons and joints. It is said not to involve deep or prolonged contact with muscle tissues as in most kinds of massage, but claims to relieve muscle tensions and strains and to restore normal lymphatic flow. It is based on practices developed by Australian Tom Bowen.[20]

Breema
Main article: Breema
Breema bodywork is performed on the floor with the recipient fully clothed. It consists of rhythmical and gentle leans and stretches.

Champissage
Main article: Champissage
Champissage is a massage technique focusing on the head, neck and face that is believed to balance the chakras.

Deep tissue massage
Deep tissue massage is designed to relieve severe tension in the muscle and the connective tissue or fascia. This type of massage focuses on the muscles located below the surface of the top muscles. Deep tissue massage is often recommended for individuals who experience consistent pain, are involved in heavy physical activity (such as athletes), and patients who have sustained physical injury. It is not uncommon for receivers of deep tissue massage to have their pain replaced with a new muscle ache for a day or two. Deep tissue work varies greatly.

The term "deep tissue" is often misused to identify a massage that is performed with sustained deep pressure. Deep tissue massage is a separate category of massage therapy, used to treat particular muscular-skeletal disorders and complaints and employs a dedicated set of techniques and strokes to achieve a measure of relief. It should not be confused with "deep pressure" massage, which is one that is performed with sustained strong, occasionally intense pressure throughout an entire full-body session, and that is not performed to address a specific complaint. Deep tissue massage is applied to both the superficial and deep layers of muscles, fascia, and other structures. The sessions are often quite intense as a result of the deliberate, focused work. When a client asks for a massage and uses the term "deep tissue", more often than not he or she is seeking to receive a full-body session with sustained deep pressure throughout. If a practitioner employs deep tissue techniques on the entire body in one session, it would be next to impossible to perform; it might lead to injury or localized muscle and nerve trauma, thereby rendering the session counterproductive.

Esalen massage
Main article: Esalen Institute
Esalen Massage was developed by Charlotte Selver and works with gentle rocking of the body, passive joint exercises and deep structural work on the muscles and joints, together with an energetic balancing of the body.

Hilot
Hilot is a traditional healing technique from the Philippines that also includes massage techniques. The massage techniques relax stressed muscles. Hilot also includes joint manipulations to help relax stressed muscles.

Hilot encompasses a wide variety of techniques beyond the treatment of stressed muscles. Hilot can be used to reset sprained joints, diagnose and treat musculoligamentous and musculoskeletal ailments, and even to aid in giving birth and to induce abortion.

Dislocated joints can also be reset by hilot after an X-ray has been done on affected body parts and medical experts advised that the same body parts are safe to be massaged.

After giving birth, hilot can be done on the mother and the baby born of normal delivery for 10 consecutive days so that they may recover easily. Hilot should not be done on mothers who deliver via caesarian section.

Hilot also uses banana leaves and herbs for enhanced efficacy.

Massage in Tarifa, Spain.
Lomi Lomi and indigenous massage of Oceania
Main article: Lomi Lomi
Lomilomi is the traditional massage of Hawaii. As an indigenous practice, it varies by island and by family. The word lomilomi also is used for massage in Samoa and East Futuna. In Samoa, it is also known as lolomi and milimili. In East Futuna, it is also called milimili, fakasolosolo, amoamo, lusilusi, kinikini, fai'ua. The Māori call it roromi and mirimiri. In Tonga massage is fotofota, tolotolo, and amoamo. In Tahiti it is rumirumi. On Nanumea in Tuvalu, massage is known as popo, pressure application is kukumi, and heat application is tutu. Massage has also been documented in Tikopia in the Solomon Islands, in Rarotonga and in Pukapuka in Western Samoa.[21]

Medical massage
Massage used in the medical field includes decongestive therapy used for lymphedema[6] which can be used in conjunction with the treatment of breast cancer. Light massage is also used in pain management and palliative care. Carotid sinus massage is used to diagnose carotid sinus syncope and is sometimes useful for differentiating supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) from ventricular tachycardia. It, like the valsalva maneuver, is a therapy for SVT.[22] However, it is less effective than management of SVT with medications.[23]

Meso-American
In Meso-America as in other areas of the world an indigenous form of soft tissue and structural massage has developed. Today this art survives thanks to the many Sobadoras/es or Hueseros/as that have handed-down these techniques via oral tradition.

Mobile massage
Given some of the main benefits of massage, many people prefer to have a therapist come to them to perform the treatment as opposed to visiting the therapist. Amongst other things, this type of treatment has the benefits of allowing the recipient to remain in their own environment with which they are likely most comfortable, to avoid the pre and post stresses of travelling to the therapist to receive their massage and of course to retire directly to a place of rest immediately following their massage. Therapists can bring a dedicated table with them on which to perform the massage or perform the treatment on the floor or the client's own bed. Mobile (or outcall) massages are particularly popular in big cities around the world where life can be more hectic than elsewhere and there are many operators of such services in places like London and New York.

Myofascial release
Main article: Myofascial release
Myofascial release refers to the manual massage technique for stretching the fascia and releasing bonds between fascia, integument, and muscles with the goal of eliminating pain, increasing range of motion and equilibrioception. Myofascial release usually involves applying shear compression or tension in various directions, or by skin rolling.

Myomassology
An integration of techniques including basic Swedish massage, aromatherapy, reflexology, shiatsu, energy balancing, and craniosacral therapy along with other modalities in conjunction with instruction in nutrition, meditation and yoga. The term Myomassology was coined by Irene Gauthier to describe her combined work of Swedish massage, craniosacral therapy, reflexology and body mechanics.

Postural integration (PI)
Main article: Postural Integration (PI)
Postural Integration (PI) is a process-oriented bodywork combining deep tissue massage with breathwork, body movement and awareness as well as emotional expression.

Reflexology massage
Main article: Reflexology
Reflexology is based on the principle that there are reflexes in the hands and feet that relate to every organ, gland, and system of the body.

Shiatsu
Main article: Shiatsu
Shiatsu (指圧) (shi meaning finger and atsu meaning pressure) is a Japanese therapy that uses pressure applied with thumbs, fingers and palms to the same energy meridians as acupressure and incorporates stretching. It also uses techniques such as rolling, brushing, vibrating, grasping and, in one particular technique developed by Suzuki Yamamoto, pressure is applied with the feet on the person's back, legs and feet.

A hot stone massage.
[edit]Stone massage
Main article: Stone massage
A stone massage uses cold or water-heated stones to apply pressure and heat to the body. Stones coated in oil can also be used by the therapist delivering various massaging strokes. The hot stones used are commonly river stones which over time, have become extremely polished and smooth. As the stones are placed along the recipient's back, they help to retain heat which then deeply penetrates into the muscles, releasing tension.[citation needed]

Structural integration
Main article: Structural integration
Structural integration's aim is to unwind the strain patterns residing in your body's myofascial system, restoring it to its natural balance, alignment, length, and ease. This is accomplished by deep, slow, fascial and myofascial manipulation, coupled with movement re-education. Various brands of Structural Integration are Kinesis Myofascial Integration and rolfing.

Swedish massage
Swedish massage uses five styles of long, flowing strokes to massage. The five basic strokes are effleurage (sliding or gliding), petrissage (kneading), tapotement (rhythmic tapping), friction (cross fiber) and vibration/shaking.[24] Swedish massage has shown to be helpful in reducing pain, joint stiffness, and improving function in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee over a period of eight weeks.[25] It has also been shown to be helpful in individuals with poor circulation[citation needed]. The development of Swedish massage is credited to Per Henrik Ling, though the Dutch practitioner Johan Georg Mezger adopted the French names to denote the basic strokes.[26] The term "Swedish" massage is actually only recognized in English speaking countries. Elsewhere the style is referred to as "classic massage".

Thai massage
Main article: Thai massage
Known in Thailand as นวดแผนโบราณ (Nuat phaen boran, IPA: [nûət pʰɛ́ːn boːraːn]), meaning "ancient/traditional massage", Thai massage originated in India and is based on ayurveda and yoga. The technique combines massage with yoga-like positions during the course of the massage; the northern style emphasizes stretching while the southern style emphasizes acupressure.

Traditional Chinese massage
Two types of traditional Chinese massage exist - Tui na (推拿) which focuses on pushing, stretching and kneading the muscle and Zhi Ya (指壓) which focuses on pinching and pressing at acupressure points. Both are based on principles from Traditional Chinese Medicine. Though in the Western countries Tui Na is viewed as massage, it is not. Massage of Chinese Medicine is known as Anmo(按摩), which is the foundation of Japan's Anma.

Tui Na is Chinese Medicine's Physio-Therapy. Utilized for medical purposes instead of relaxation, Tui Na works to correct the patient's problems, from musculoskeletal conditions, to diseases, cancers and even minor and major headaches.

Within the foundation of Tui Na, Traditional Chinese Medicine principles are followed, from Meridian Applications to Herbal Formulas, Qigong Therapy and heated herbal application (Moxa). Technique applications such as friction and vibration are used as well.

The Trager approach combines movement, massage and education.

Trigger point therapy
Sometimes confused with pressure point massage,[6] this involves deactivating trigger points that may cause local pain or refer pain and other sensations, such as headaches, in other parts of the body. Manual pressure, vibration, injection, or other treatment is applied to these points to relieve myofascial pain. Trigger points were first discovered and mapped by Janet G. Travell (president Kennedy's physician) and David Simons. Trigger points have been photomicrographed and measured electrically.[27] and in 2007 a paper was presented showing images of Trigger Points using MRI.[28] These points relate to dysfunction in the myoneural junction, also called neuromuscular junction (NMJ), in muscle, and therefore this modality is different from reflexology, acupressure and pressure point massage.

Visceral manipulation
One form is Mayan abdominal massage which is practiced in many countries in Latin America. This type of massage was developed by Elijio Panti of Belize and brought to the United States by Rosita Arvigo. Even though Panti was a respected and well known user of Mayan massage, he did not develop this modality. "Mayan Massage" techniques have been used since before the Spanish conquest and is still practiced today by many Sobadores or Hueseros.

Watsu
Main article: Watsu
Watsu is the combination of hydrotherapy and shiatsu developed by Harold Dull. The work is done in skin temperature water with both the therapist and practitioner in the water, usually a pool which is between 3.5 ft to 4 ft (100–120 cm) deep. The work entails much movement in the water and practitioners believe that it incorporates the activation of the energy lines derived from shiatsu.

source - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massage

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